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Searched all words in all documents for Treaties to be gone over, clause by clause

John Adams diary 46, various loose folded sheets, 6 August 1787 - 10 September 1796 (with gaps), 2 July - 21 August 1804


[Beginning of Fragment A]
At Kin [Kingsbridge, the southerly] Point of the County of Dev [Devonshire, the birth] irth Place of my Brother Cranch. [Went Yesterday] day to Church in the Morning, dined with Mr. Burnell, went to the Presbyterian Meeting afternoon, drank Tea with Mr. Trathan, and went to the Baptist Meeting in the Evening. -- Lord Petre is the Lord of this mannor. -- The Nephew of my Brother Cranch possesses the Family Estate, which I saw, very near the Church, four Lotts of very fine Land in high Cultivation. The Nephews and Nieces are married and settled here, all Tradesmen and Farmers in good Business and comfortable Circumstances and live in a harmony with each other, that is charming. -- On Saturday We passed thro Plympton And Modbury. From the last Town emigrated my Brother Cranch with Mr. Palmer. It is a singular Village at the Bottom of a Valley formed by four high and steep hills. On Fryday We went out from Plymouth to Horsham, to see Mr. Palmer, the Nephew of our Acquaintance in America. His sister only was at home. This is a pleasant Situation. We had before seen Mr. Andrew Cranch at Exeter, the aged Brother of my friend, and Mr. William Cranch, another Brother deprived by a Paralytick Stroke of all his faculties.


[Mr. Bowring, at Exeter], went with me to see Mr. Towg [Towgood, the author] of the dissenting Gentlemans answer [to Mr. Whites] three Letters, 87 years of age.
Brook is next Door to Strachleigh Swainstone and Strachleigh, near Lee Mill Bridge, about two miles from Ivy Bridge. Strachleigh did belong to the Chudleighs the Dutchess of Kingstons Family.
Haytor Rock is at the Summit of the highest Mountain in Dartmore Forrest. Brentor is said by some to be higher.
Dined at Totness, thro which the River Dart runs to Dartmouth. Slept at Newton Newton bushell.


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[Beginning of Fragment B ]

Power of Removal.

Mr. Carrol. The Executive Power is commensurate with the Legislative and Judicial Powers.

The Rule of Construction of Treaties, Statutes and deeds.

The same Power which creates must annihilate. -- This is true where the Power is simple, but when compound not.

If a Minister is suspected to betray Secrets to an Ennemy, the Senate not sitting, cannot the President displace, nor suspend.

The States General of France, demanded that offices should be during good behaviour.

It is improbable that a bad President should be chosen -- but may not bad Senators be chosen.

Is there a due ballance of Power between the Executive and Legislative, either in the General Government or State Governments.

Montesquieu. English Liberty will be lost, when the Legislative shall be more corrupt, than the Executive. -- Have We not been witnesses of corrupt Acts of Legislatures, making depredations? Rhode Island yet perseveres.



Mr. Elsworth. We are sworn to support the Constitution.

There is an explicit grant of Power to the President, which contains the Powers of Removal.

The Executive Power is granted -- not the Executive Powers hereinafter enumerated and explained.

The President -- not the Senate appoint. They only Consent, and Advise.

The Senate is not an Executive Council -- has no Executive Power.

The Grant to the President express, not by Implication.

Mr. Butler. This Power of Removal would be unhinging the equilibrium of Power in the Constitution.

The Statholder witheld the fleet from going out, to the Anoyance of the Ennemies of the nation.

In Treaties, all Powers not expressly given are reserved.

Treaties to be gone over, Clause by Clause, by the President and Senate together, and modelled.



The other Branches are imbecil.

Disgust and alarm.

The President not sovereign. The U.S. sovereign, or People, or Congress sovereign.

The House of Representatives would not be induced to depart, so well satisfied of the Grounds.

Elsworth. The Powers of this Constitution are all vested -- parted from the People, from the States, and vested not in Congress but in the President.

The Word Sovereignty is introduced without determinate Ideas. -- Power in the last Resort. In this sense the Sovereign Executive is in the president.

The U.S. will be Parties to 1000 Suits. Shall Proscess issue in their Name vs. or for themselves.

The President it is said, may be put to Goal for Debt.

Lee. U.S. merely figurative meaning the People.



Grayson. The President is not above the Law. An Absurdity to admit this Idea into our Government. Not improbable that the President may be sued. Christina Q. of Sweeden committed Murder. France excused her. The Jurors of our Lord the President, present that the President committed Murder.

A Monarchy by a Sidewind. You make him Vindex Injuriarum. The People will not like The Jurors of our Lord the President -- nor the Peace of our Lord the President, nor his Dignity. His Crown will be left out. Do not wish to make the Constitution a more unnatural monstrous Production than it is. -- The British Constitution a three legged Stool. If one legg is longer than another, the Stool will not stand.

Unpallatable. The removal of Officers not palatable. We should not risk any Thing for nothing. Come forward like Men, and reason openly, and the People will hear more quietly than if you attempt side Winds. This Measure will do no good and will disgust.



Mr. Lee. The Danger to liberty greater from the disunited Opinions and jarring Plans of many, than from the energetic operations of one. Marius,Sylla, Caesar, Cromwell trampled on Liberty with Armies.

The Power of Pardon -- of adjourning the Legislature.

Power of Revision, sufficient to defend himself. He would be supported by the People.

Patronage. Gives great Influence. The Interference more nominal than real.

The greater Part of Power of making Treaties in the President.

The greatest Power is in the President, the less in the Senate.

Cannot see Responsibility, in the President or the great Officers of State.

A masqued Battery of constructive Powers would compleat the destruction of Liberty.

Can the Executive lay Embargoes, establish Fairs, Tolls &c.?



The federal Government is limited, the Legislative Power of it is limited, and therefore the Executive and judicial must be limited.

The Executive not punishable but by universal Convulsion, as Charles 1 st.

The Legislative in England not so corrupt as the Executive.

There is no Responsibility, in the President, or Ministry.

Blackstone. The Liberties of England owing to juries. The greatness of England owing to the Genius of that People.

The Crown of England can do what it pleases, nearly.

There is no ballance in America, to such an Executive as that in England.

Does the Executive Arm, mean a standing Army?

Willing to make a Law, that the President, if he sees gross misconduct may suspend pro tempore.

Mr. Patterson. Laments that We are obliged to discuss this question. Of great Importance and much difficulty.

The Executive co extensive with the Legislative. Had the Clause stood alone, would not there have been a devolution of all Executive Power?



Exceptions are to be construed strictly. This is an invariable Rule.

Mr. Grayson. The P [President] has not a continental Interest, but is a Citizen of a particular State. A K [King ]of E [England] otherwise. K. of E. counteracted by a large, powerful, rich and hereditary aristocracy. -- Hyperion to a Satyr.

Where there are not intermediate Powers, an alteration of the Government must be to despotism.

Powers ought not to be inconsiderately given to the Executive, without proper ballances.

Triennial and septenial Parliaments made by Corruption of the Executive.

Bowstring. General Lally. Brutus's Power to put his Sons to death.

The Power creating shall have that of uncreating. The Minister is to hold at Pleasure of the Appointor.

If it is in the Constitution, why insert it, in the Law? Brought in by a Sidewind, inferentially.

There will be every endeavour to increase the consolidatory Powers, to weaken the Senate, and strengthen the President.

No Evil in the Senates participating with the P. in Removal.



Mr. Reed. P. is to take care that the Laws be faithfully executed. He is responsible. How can he do his duty or be responsible, if he cannot remove his Instruments.

It is not an equal sharing of the Power of Appointment between the President and senate. The Senate are only a Check to prevent Impositions of the President.

The Minister, an Agent a Deputy to the great Executive.

Difficult to bring great Characters to Punishment or Tryal.

Power of Suspension.



Mr. Johnson. Gentlemen convince themselves that it is best the President should have the Power, and then study for Arguments.

Exceptions.

Not a Grant. Vested in the President, would be void for Uncertainty. Executive Power is uncertain. Powers are moral, mechanical, natural. Which of these Powers -- what Executive Power? The Land. The Money. Conveys nothing. What Land? What Money.

Unumquodque dissolvitur, eodem modo, quo ligatur.

Meddles not with the question of Expediency.

The Executive wants Power, by its duration and its want of a Negative, and Power to ballance. Federalist.

Mr. Elsworth. What is the difference between a Grant and a Partition.

Mr. Izard. Cujus est instituere ejus est abrogare.



[Beginning of Fragment C ]
Mr. Elsworth informed me That Governor Randolph of Virginia, opened the Convention at Philadelphia, and offered a Project of a Constitution. After him several other Members proposed Plans, some Writing, others verbally. A Committee was at length appointed to take them all into Consideration, the Virginia Scheme being the Ground Work. This Committee consisted of Governor Rutledge of S.C., Mr. Wilson of Philadelphia, Mr. Gorham of Massachusetts, and Mr. Elsworth of Connecticut. After this Committee reported, and When the Report of this Committee, had been considered and discussed, in the Convention it was recommitted to Governeur Morris, Mr. Maddison and some others.


[Beginning of Fragment D ]

Permanent Seat.

Mr. Grayson. No Census yet taken, by which the Center of Population --

We have Markets, Archives, Houses, Lodgings. -- Extreamly hurt at what has passed in the House of Reps. [Representatives] The Money. Is your Army paid? Virginia offered 100,000. towards the federal Buildings. The Buildings may be erected without Expence to the Union. Lands may be granted--these Lands laid out in Lots and sold to Adventurers.

Mr. Butler.... The recent Instance in France shews that an Attempt to establish a Government vs.the Justice and the Will of the People is vain, and idle, and chimerical.

Mr. Lee. Navigation of the Susquehannah.
Mr. Grayson. Antwerp and the Scheld. Reasons of State have influenced the Pensilvanians to prevent the navigation from being opened. The limiting the Seat of Empire to the State of Pen. on the Delaware is a characteristic Mark of Partiality. The Union will think that Pen. governs the Union, and that the general Interest is sacrificed to that of one State.


The Czar Peter took time to enquire and deliberate before he fixed a Place to found his City.
We are about founding a City which will be one of the first in the World, and We are governed by local and partial Motives.
Mr. Morris moves to expunge the Proviso.
Mr. Carrol. Against the Motion to expunge the Proviso. Considers the Western Country of great Importance. Some Gentlemen in both houses seem to undervalue the Western Country or despair of commanding it. Government on the Potowmack would secure it.
Mr. Butler. The question is not whether Pensilvania or Maryland shall be benefited -- but how are the United States benefited or injured.
Mr. Macclay. Pensilvania has altered the Law this month respecting
the navigation of the Susquehannah.
Mr. Grayson moves to strike out the Words, "in the State of Pensilvania.
Mr. Butler. The Center of Population the best Criterion. The Center of Wealth and the Center of Territory.
Mr. Lee. The Center of Territory is the only permanent Center.


Mr. Macclay. See his minutes.


[Beginning of Fragment E ]
It was not the sense of either House, or of any member of either, that the Business pending at the Adjournment should be lost.
Where is the OEconomy of repeating the Expence of Time?
Can this opinion be founded on the Law of Parliament? The K. [King] can prorogue the Parliament. But there is no such Power here.
The Rule of Parliament that Business once acted on, and rejected shall not be brought on again, the same session, is a good Rule, but not applicable to this Case.
Mr. Elsworth. In Legislative Assemblies, more to be apprehended from precipitation than from the Delay.


Interest, Corruption, Prejudice, Error, Ignorance. Causes of wrong Judgments.
Have not these Causes, as much Influence in one Assembly as in two? If either or all of these Causes should prevail, over Reason, justice, and the public good in one Assembly, is not a Revision of the Subject in another a probable means of correcting the false decree?


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[Beginning of Fragment F ]
Williamson. Great Numbers emigrate to the back parts of North and S.C. and G. for the Sake of living without Trouble. The Woods, such is the mildness of the Climate, produce grass to support horses and Cattle, and Chesnuts, Acorns and other Things for the food of hogs. So that they have only a little corn to raise which is done without much Labour. They call this kind of Life following the range. They are very ignorant and hate all Men of Education. They call them Pen and Ink Men.


Yesterday a No. of the national Gazette was sent to me, by Phillip Freneau, printed by Childs and Swaine. Mr. Freneau, I am told is made Interpreter.


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[Beginning of Fragment G ]
Lime dissolves all vegetable Substances, such as Leaves, Straws, Stalks, Weeds, and converts them into an immediate food for Vegetables. It kills the Eggs of Worms and Seeds of Weeds. The best method is to spread it in your Barn Yard among the Straw and Dung. It succeeds well when spread upon the Ground. Burning Lime Stones or Shells, diminishes their Weight: but slaking the Lime restores that Weight. The German farmers say that Lime makes the father rich, but the Grandson poor -- i.e. exhausts the Land. This is all from Mr. Rutherford.Plaister of Paris has a vitriolic Acid in it, which attracts the Water from the Air, and operates like watering Plants. It is good for corn -- not useful in wet Land. You sprinkle it by hand as you sow Barley, over the Ground, 5 Bushells powdered to an  [illegible Acre. Carry it in a Bag as you would grain to sow.


Mr. Meredith at Mr. Vaughans explained to me his Method. He takes a first Crop of Clover early: then breaks up the Ground, cross ploughs and harrows it. Then plants Potatoes. He only ploughs a furrow, drops the Potatoes a foot a sunder and then covers them with another furrow. He ploughs now and then between these Rows: but never hoes. As soon as the Season comes for sowing his Winter Barley: He diggs the Potatoes, ploughs and harrows the Ground, sows the Winter Barley with Clover Seeds and orchard Grass Seeds: and the next Spring he has a great Crop of Barley and afterwards a great Burthen of Grass. -- He prefers Orchard Grass to Herds Grass as much more productive.


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[Beginning of Fragment H ]
Sullivan Lathrop came for 6 Mo [Months] at 12 1/2.
Thomas Lathrop came for 6 Mo. [Months] at 9.
Yesterday mow'd all the Grass on Stony field Hill. To day ploughing for Hilling among the Corn over against the House. Brisler laying the foundation of the new Barn which is to be rais'd tomorrow, at the East End of my Fathers barn. Puffer and Sullivan Lathrop ploughing among Potatoes in the lower Garden.
This journal is commenced, to allure me into the habit of Writing again, long lost. This habit is easily lost but not easily regained. I have, in the Course of Life, lost it several times and regained it as often. So I will now. I can easily credit the Reports I have heard of Dr. Robertson the Scottish Historian, who is said to have lost the Habit of Writing for many Years: but he reacquired it, before his death, and produced his Inquiry into the Knowledge of the Ancients of India.
In the Course of my Walk, this morning to my Farm new Barn, I met Major Miller, who offered to sell me his Cedar Swamp and Woodlot of 20 Acres, beyond Harmans, descended from his Grandfather and Father. His Price 9 = 30 dollars per Acre. Part of it has never been cutt -- Part cutt 20 Years ago and grown up very thick. Billings came home before dinner, but did no Work.
My new Barn is to be raised this Afternoon, a Rod or two from my Fathers which he built when I was two or three Years old -- about 58 years ago, or 59.
Billings went out to hoe this morning but soon came in. Said he had sprained his Arm and could not work.


Billings soon went out towards Captn. Beales's.Puffer, one of my Workmen from Stoughton, came home late last night. Said Captn. Lindzee had call'd him in and given him a Bottle of Brandy. By what Sympathy do these Tipplers discover one another?
This Day my new Barn was raised near the Spot where the old Barn stood which was taken down by my Father when he raised his new barn in 1737. The Frame is 50 by 30-13 foot Posts.
The Wind N.W. after a fine rain. A firing of Cannon this morning in the Harbour. I arose by four O Clock and enjoyed the Charm of earliest Birds. Their Songs were never more various, universal, animating or delightful.
My Corn this Year, has been injured by two Species of Worms. One of the Size and Shape of a Catterpillar, but of a mouse Colour, lies at the root, eats off the Stalk and then proceeds to all the other Plants in the Hill, till he frequently kills them all. The other is long and slender as a needle, of a bright yellow Colour. He is found in the Center of the Stalk near the Ground where he eats it off, as the Hessian fly eats the Wheat. My Brother taught me, the Method of finding these Vermin, and destroying them. They lie commonly near the Surface.
I have been to see my Barn, which looks very stately and strong. Rode up to Braintree and saw where Trask has been trimming Red Cedars. He has not much more to do. He was not at Work. He has probably worked two days since I was there last.


It rains at 11 O Clock. The Barley is growing white for the Harvest. My Men are hilling the Corn over the Road. A soft fine rain, in a clock calm is falling as sweetly as I ever saw in April, May or June. It distills as gently as We can wish. Will beat down the grain as little as possible, refresh the Gardens and Pastures, revive the Corn, make the fruit grow rapidly, and lay the foundation of fine Rowen and After feed.
A very heavy Shower of Rain. Thunder in the morning. Billings still unable to work -- goes over towards Basses first, then up in Town with Seth.
Went with 3 hands, Puffer, Sullivan Lathrop and Mr. Bass, to Braintree and cutt between 40 and 50 Red Cedars and with a team of five Cattle brought home 22 of them at a Load. We have opened the Prospect so that the Meadows and Western Mountain may be distinctly seen.
Burrell had two hands employed in heaping up Manure in his Barn Yard. The Cattle have broken into his Corn field, through the Gap which We left unfinished in the great Wall, and eaten an hundred hills.
The new Barn is boarded on the Roof, and the underpinning is finished.


Paid off Puffer, for Eleven Days Works at a Dollar a Day. Trask and Stetson at work in the Garden. Sullivan and Bass gone for another Load of Red Cedar Posts. Billing over at Bass's in the Morning and going up in Town with Seth as usual.
Trask told me he had worked 20 days. This day in the Garden makes 21. Monday he is to cutt the Wood in the Swamp on Pens Hill. We got in two Loads the last of our English Hay, and bro't home a Load of Red Cedars.
Warm but clear. Billings at home but running down Cellar for Cyder.
We are to have a Mr. Hilliard.
Yesterday Dr. Tufts and Mr. Otis and Family dined with me. Otis was very full of Elections and had many Things to say about Pinckney and Henry,Jefferson and Burr. He says there was a Caucus at Philadelphia, that they agreed to run Jefferson and Burr -- that Butler was offended and left them. O. takes it for granted the P. will retire. Pickering has given out that he will. Mrs. W. takes it for granted that he will. Collections, Packages and Removals of Cloaths and furniture of their own have been made. Anecdotes of Dandridge, and Mrs. W.s Negro Woman. Both disappeared -- never heard of -- know not where they are. When the Electors are chosen the Declaration is to be made. -- Q. Is this Arrangement made that the Electors may make him the Compliment of an Election after a Nolo, and thus furnish an Apology for Accepting after all the Talk?


Mr. Otis confirms the Account of the nomination and Appointment of my Son to be Minister Plenipotentiary of the U.S. at the Court of Portugal. He also confirms the Adjournment of Congress to the Constitutional Day, 1. Monday in December. Mrs. W. is not to return to Phil. till November.
Mr. Hilliard of Cambridge preached for Us. He is the Son of our old Acquaintance Minister of Barnstable and afterwards at Cambridge. Mr. Quincy and Mr. Sullivan drank Tea with Us.
Billings is at hoe. The Kitchen Folk say he is steady. A terrible drunken distracted Week he has made of the last. A Beast associating with the worst Beasts in the Neighborhood. Drunk with John Copeland, Seth Bass &c. Hurried as if possessed, like Robert the Coachman, or Turner the Stocking Weaver. Running to all the Shops and private Houses swilling Brandy, Wine and Cyder in quantities enough to destroy him. If the Ancients drank Wine as our People drink rum and Cyder it is no wonder We read of so many possessed with Devils.
Went up to Penns hill. Trask has the Rheumatism in his Arm and is unable to work. He told me that Rattlesnakes began to appear -- two on Saturday by Porters and Prays. One kill'd. The other escaped. He told me too of another Event that vex'd, provoked and allarm'd me much more -- vizt., That my Horses were Yesterday in such

in such a frenzy at the Church Door, that they frightened the Crowd of People, and frightened a Horse or the People in the Chaise so that they whipp'd their Horse, till he ran over two Children. The  [illegible children stooped down or fell down, so that the chaise went over them without hurting them. But it must have been almost a Miracle, that they were not kill'd or wounded. I know not when my Indignation has [been] more excited, at the Coachman for his folly and Carelessness: and indeed at others of the Family for the Carriage going to Meeting at all. As Mrs. A. could not go the Coach ought not to have gone. The Coachman and Footman ought to have gone to Meeting -- and the Girls to have walk'd. L. Smith has no Pretentions to ride in a Coach more than Nancy Adams or even Polly Howard. It is spoiling her Mind and her Reputation both, to indulge her Vanity in that Manner. I scolded at the Coachman first and afterwards at his Mistress, and I will scold again and again. It is my Duty. There is no greater Insolence or Tyranny, than sporting with Horses and Carriages among Crouds of People.
A plentifull Shower of Rain with Thunder and Lightning this Morning. Took a Tea spoonful of Bark in Spirit.


Billings steady: but deep in the horrors, gaping, stretching, groaning.
Rode to the Swamp, at the Top of Penns hill. Trask is mowing the Bushes, cutting the Trees, and leaves only the White Oaks which he trims and prunes as high as he can reach. My design is to plough up a Corn field for Burrell, against next Year, in that Inclosure. Walked in the Afternoon over the Hills and across the fields and Meadows, up to the old Plain. The Corn there is as good as any I have seen, excepting two or three Spots. Brisler and Sullivan cutting Sleepers for the Barn. My beautiful Grove, so long preserved by my Father and my Uncle, proves to be all rotten. More than half the Trees We cutt are so defective as to be unfit for any Use but the fire. I shall save the White Oaks, and cutt the rest.
I was overtaken with the Rain, at the End of my Walks and returned home in it. Mrs. Tufts, Mrs. Norton, Mrs. Cranch and Mrs. Smith were here.
Sullivan Lathrop and Bass carting earth into the Yard from the Ground which is to be thrown into the High Way over against my House. The old Appletree, probably an hundred Years of Age is to fall.
Billings and Thomas Lathrop mowing in the Meadow.


Six hogsheads of Lime, 50 Gallons each were brought home Yesterday for Manure. I have it of Mr. Brackett, at 15s. the Hdd.
I am reading Dr. Watsons Apology for the Bible in Answer to T. Paines 2d Part of Age of Reason.
That Appletree, over the Way, to which the Beauty and Convenience of the Road has been sacrificed for an hundred Years, has now in its turn, with Apples enough upon it to make two Barrells of Cyder, fallen a Sacrifice to the Beauty and Convenience of the Road. It has been felled this morning, never to rise again and the Road is to be widened and enlarged. The Stump and Roots are to be dug out of the Ground and the Wall to be removed Back and made an Ha! Ha!
Billings had a mind to go upon Wall. I went with him from Place to Place, and could resolve on nothing. I then set him to split and mortise some Posts for the fence vs. Mrs. Veasie. We went up, carried the Posts but when We came there We found that the Wall was too heavy and Stones too large for two hands -- four at least were necessary. Billings was wild and We came to some Explanation. He must go off &c. Mrs. Adams paid him off, and then He thought he would not go.

After long Conversations Billings came to a Sort of Agreement to stay a Year from this day, at 45. He declared he would not drink Spirit nor Cyder for the whole Year. He reserved however twelve days for himself. We shall see tomorrow Morning how he behaves.
Billings sober and steady, persevering in his declaration that he will not drink, these 12 months. Paid Trask in full sixteen Dollars for 24 Days Works. He insisted on 4s. a Day. He has finished clearing the Swamp on Penns Hill this day.
Rode down to the Barley and Black grass at the Beach. The Barley is better than I  [illegible hoped. The Clover has taken pretty well in general. Parts where the Tide has flowed are kill'd. Weeds very thick round the Margin of the Salt Meadow, or rather Black grass meadow. Twitch Grass scattering and thin. Billings sober, composed as ever. Bass and Brisler mowing with him. James the Coachman, enjoying the Pleasures of a Sportsman, shooting marsh Birds instead of mowing.
I rode up to Burrells in Braintree to tell Sullivan and Thomas that they might stay with the Team till they had got in all Burrells Hay. Billings thinks there will be 30 Bushells of Barley at the Beach and 30 Bushells to an Acre on Stony field Hill.


Burrells Barn is already nearly full of English Hay and fresh. His Salt Hay, he must stack or stow it in his Barn floor. He has collected his Summer Dung into heaps in his Barn Yard, and has a good deal of it. He will have manure enough, from his Cows and young Cattle, to serve a good Cornfield next Year. His Hogs besides will make a good deal.
I have concluded to break up upon Penns Hill a good Corn field on each side of the new Wall, one for Burrell and one for French and Vinton. They may sled or cart the manure in the Winter, and that Land will produce Clover and Herds grass much better than the plain below. I am weary of wasting so much labour and manure upon that dry plain, which is scortched and burnt up in a dry Season.
Still reading Bishop Watsons Apology. Finished.
My Men mowed the Black Grass and Barley at the Beach, came home and split all the Red Cedars into Posts and morticed some of them. Sullivan morticed after having assisted Burrell to get in all his fresh Hay.
Began The Life of Petrarch by Susanna Dobson.
We are to have for a Preacher a Mr. Whitcomb.
Billings is still cool and steady.


In the 1st. Vol. of the Life of Petrarch page 52. it is said that Pope John the 22d believed that the Souls of the just would not enjoy The Vision of God till after the Universal Judgment and the Resurrection of their Bodies. This Opinion is Priestleys and Price was much inclin'd to it. This Popes imprudent Endeavours to establish this Doctrine, produced an Insurrection of the Cardinals and Court of Rome -- Decisions of the Doctors in Theology at Paris &c. and obliged the Pope to retract. Petrarch appears to have favoured his Opinion concerning The Vision of God.
Went to Church Forenoon and Afternoon, and heard Mr. Whitcomb of Bolton.
Dull Weather but no Rain. The Lathrops with the Team are going to the Swamp on Penns Hill for a Load of Wood that Trask has cutt.
Rode up to the Swamp on Penns hill. Sullivan and Bass loaded up a Cord of Wood and Sullivan drove it home. Bass staid and cutt down and cutt up an old Walnut, murdered: by the Women and Children for their Dye Potts,cutt down and cutt up an old Appletree and a Buttonwood Tree. When Sullivan returned he climbed and trimmed two large Buttonwoods.

I then left Bass and Sullivan to load their Waggon with the Wood and came home to dinner.
Brisler, Billings, Thomas, James and Prince, after mowing the Barley on Stoney field Hill, were gone down to the Beech to rake and heap the Barley ready for Sullivan to bring home, after he shall have unloaded his Wood. The Weather is warm and clear. Sullivan came home, unloaded his Wood, went down to the Beech and brought up all the Black Grass and Barley at one Load, which was so heavy however that he could not ascend the Hill to the little Barn. Brisler,Bass and James raked upon Stony field hill.
Cloudy and begins to rain, the Wind at N.E. The Men gone up the Hill to rake the Barley.
In conformity to the fashion I drank this Morning and Yesterday Morning, about a Jill of Cyder. It seems to do me good, by diluting and dissolving the Phlegm or the Bile in the Stomach.
The Christian Religion is, above all the Religions that ever prevailed or existed in ancient or modern Times, The Religion of Wisdom, Virtue, Equity and Humanity, let the Blackguard Paine say what he will. It is Resignation to God -- it is Goodness itself to Man.


Billings and Sullivan making and liming an heap of Manure. They compounded it, of Earth carted in from the Ground opposite the Garden where the Ha! Ha Wall is to be built, of Salt Hay and Seaweed trodden by the Cattle in the Yard, of Horse dung from the Stable, and of Cow dung left by the Cows, over all this Composition they now and then sprinkle a layer of Lime. Bass and Thomas hoeing Potatoes in the lower Garden.
I rode up to The Barn, which Mr. Pratt has almost shingled, and over to the Plain, but found My Tenants were at work in my Fathers old Swamp, which I could not reach without more trouble than I was willing to take.
Dr. Welsh came up, with two young Gentlemen from New York, Mr. John and Mr. Henry Cruger, the youngest of whom livesstudies with my son Charles as a Lawyer, who gives him an excellent Character. They are journeying Eastward as far as Portland and return by Albany. The Eldest of them has lately return'd from the East Indies.
Billings and Sullivan are gone to the Beech for a Load of Seaweed to put into their Hill of Compost. Bass and Thomas hoeing still in the lower Garden.James sick of a Surfeit of fruit.


I continue my practice of drinking a Jill of Cyder in the Morning and find no ill but some good Effect.
It is more than forty Years since I read Swifts Comparison of Dryden in his Translation of Virgil to The Lady in a Lobster. But untill this Day I never knew the meaning of it. To Day at Dinner seeing Lobsters at Table I enquired after the Lady, and Mrs. Brisler rose and went into the Kitchen to her Husband who sent in the little Lady herself in the Cradle in which she resides. She must be an old Lady -- she looks like Dr. Franklin, i.e. like an Egyptian Mummy. Swifts droll Genius must have been amused with such an Object. It is as proper a Subject or rather allusion or Illustration, for Humour and Satyr as can be imagined. A little old Woman in a spacious Habitation as the Cradle is would be a proper Emblem of a President in the new House at Philadelphia.
Billing and Sullivan brought up in the Morning a good Load of green Seaweed.Billing and Bass have [been] carting Dirt and liming the heap of Compost. Sullivan and Thomas threshing Barley at the little Barn.Billing and Bass brought up a second Load of Seaweed at night.
Hot after Thunder, Lightening and an Hours Rain. The two Lathrops threshing.

Billing and Bass carting Earth.Lathrops threshing. Billing and Bass brought up a third Load of Seaweed. They go on making the Heap of Compost with Lime, Seaweed, Earth, Horse Dung, Hogs dung &c.
Still reading the Second Volume of Petrarchs Life.
All hands carting Earth and making Compost, i.e. 4 hands Billings, Bass and the two Lathrops. Billings is in his Element. Building Wall and making manure are his great delights, he says. He says he will cover all my Clover with green Seaweed. Drop part of a Load on the lower Part and carry the rest up the hill to the Barley Stubble. He will make a heap of Compost too upon the Top of the Hill to dung the Corn in the holes next Year upon the Piece which I propose to break up, and he will make an heap of Compost in the Spring with winter Dung to dung Corn beyond the Ditch. He will get a Scow load of Rockweed, and Scow loads of Seaweed and marsh mud. If he did not execute as well as plann, I should suppose this all Gasconade. But he is the most ingenious, the most laborious, the most resolute and the most indefatigable Man I ever employed.


A fine N.W. Wind, pure Air, and clear Sun Sky, and bright Sun. Reading the second Volume of Petrarchs Life. This singular Character had very wild Notions of the Right of the City of Rome to a Republican Government and the Empire of the World. It is strange that his Infatuation for Rienzi did not expose him to more Resentment and greater Danger. In the Absence of the Pope at Avignon, and the People having no regular Check upon the Nobles, these fell into their usual Dissentions, and oppressed the People till they were ripe to be duped by any single Enthusiast, bold Adventurer, ambitious Usurper, or hypocritical Villain who should, with sufficient Imprudence, promise them Justice, Humanity Clemency and Liberty. One or all of these Characters belonged to Rienzi, who was finally murdered by the People whom he had deceived, and who had deceived him.
Tacitus appears to have been as great an Enthusiast as Petrarch for the Revival of the Republic, and universal Empire. He has exerted the Vengeance of History upon the Emperors, but has veiled the Conspiracies against them,and the incorrigible Corruption of the People, which probably provoked their most atrocious Cruelties. Tyranny can scarcely be practiced upon a virtuous and wise People.
Mr. Whitcomb preached and dined with me.


Hands all gone to finish our Equinoctial Line of Wall as Billings calls it. -- Hot, sultry, muggy last night Muskitoes numerous and busy, poor sleep, up and down all night.
Have my Brothers Oxen to day.
Wrote to Mr. Sullivan by Dr. Tufts an Answer to his Inquiries concerning Mitchels Map and St. Croix River.
My own Hands with Nathaniel Hayden only and my own oxen only, finished the great Wall upon Penn's Hill. Mr. Benjamin Shaw and his Wife, (Charity Smith,) drank Tea with Us. He is a Clerk in the Branch Bank at 600 dollars a Year, and She is opening an Accademy of young Ladies for Painting and Music. They live in his Mothers House, and she boards with them. I took a ride with him and in his Chaise to the Top of Penns Hill. If innate Levity is curable, they may be happy.

If a soft, sweet Voice, a musical Ear, and melodious Modulations, could feed the hungry and cloath the naked, how happy might some People be. She rattles about Independence and boasts of having earned fifty dollars last Month. But the Foible of the Race is rattle.
Brisler is going to Squantum and Long Island, for my Twin Oxen who are reprieved for a Year. The Lathrops to threshing and Billings and Bass, to manure.
Answered Mr. Rutherfords Letter of 28. June.
This Day Thomas Lothrop went away to Bridgwater, unwell, and I paid him 9 dollars. Billings brought up a Load of green Seaweed.
Of all the Summers of my Life, this has been the freest from Care, Anxiety and Vexation to me. The Sickness of Mrs. A. excepted. My Health has been better, the Season fruitful, my farm was conducted. Alas! what may happen to reverse all this? But it is folly to anticipate evils, and madness to create imaginary ones.
Went over to Weymouth with Mrs. A., visited Mr. Norton and dined with Dr. Tufts whose salted Beef and shell beans with ana Whortleberry Pudden and his Cyder is a Luxurious Treat.Col. Hubbard and his Wife came and I laid a Plan to plough Penns Hill [by?] Abington Ploughmen.


Bass went to Squantum for the oxen -- disappointed. The Wind too high to go over to Long Island. Sullivan threshing. Billings and Bass carting Dirt, making Compost with Lime, brought up a Load of Seaweed.
A fine day. I have finished Petrarch. Walked up to the new Barn and over to the old Plain. Sullivan and Mr. Sam. Hayward threshing Billings and Bass carting Earth and Seaweed and liming the Compost. Mr. Wibirt dined with Us.James brought home the twin oxen from Long Island. Trask burning Bushes in the Swamp on Penns Hill.
Billings and Bass off by Day for Seaweed. Twin oxen sent to be shod.
Omnium Rerum Domina, Virtus. Virtue is The Mistress of all Things. Virtue is The Master of all Things. Therefore a Nation that should never do wrong must necessarily govern the World. The Might of Virtue, The Power of Virtue is not a very common Topick, not so common as it should be.
Bass and Billings brought another Load of Seaweed in the Evening for the Swine. Sullivan Lothrop went home. Mrs. A. paid him 15 dollars. Mr.Flynt called at Evening. Tomorrow is the last Sunday of his Engagement at Milton. He then goes a journey for 3 Weeks after which he returns. Mr. Whitcomb supplies Us in the mean time. Rode up to the burnt Swamp.


I am reading a Work of Cicero that I remember not to have read before. It is intituled M. Tullii Ciceronis Si Deo placet Consolatio. Remarkable for an ardent hope and confident belief of a future State.
Mr. Whitcomb preached and dined with Us. Prince, having provoked beyond bearing by his insolent Contempt of repeated orders, got a gentle flogging, and went off, i.e. run away. Thomas Lothrop return'd from Bridgwater.
Billing and Bass gone to mowing Salt Grass at the Beach Meadow. T. Lothrop unloading the Sea weed. No Negro but James, who shall be the last. -- Agreed with Mr. Reed of Abington to plough for me next Monday &c. Trask half a day mowing bushes.
4 hands mowing Salt Grass. Finished the Beach Meadow. Trask mowing Bushes to make room for the plough upon Penns hill. T. Lothrop, threshing Corn -- Brisler winnowing Barley.
Billing and Bass collecting Compost. Brought up two Loads of Seaweed and carted several Loads of Earth from behind the Outhouse.
Mr. Howell of Rhode Island came up to see me and conversed the whole Evening concerning St. Croix and his Commission for settling that Boundary.


Mr. Howell lodged with Us and spent the whole Morning in Conversation concerning the Affairs of his Mission. He said by way of Episode that the President would resign, and that there was one Thing which would make R. Island unanimous in his Successor and that was the funding System. He said they wanted Hamilton for V.P. -- I was wholly silent.
Billing and Bass brought up a Load of Dulce and Eelgrass and are carting Earth from below the Outhouse. The Lothrops threshing.
Mr. Thomas Johnson, only son of Joshua Johnson of London, Consul, came to visit Us and spent the day and night with Us. I carried him to the Pinnacle of Penns Hill to show him the Prospect.
Billing, Bass and Sullivan carting Salt Hay from the Beech Marsh. Tirell and Th. Lothrop threshing and winnowing Barley.
Three Load of Salt Hay Yesterday from the Beach Marsh. Got in 51 Bushells of Barley winnowed and [illegible raddled. Billing, Bass, Sullivan Lothrop and E. Belcher with Brisler poling off and carting Salt Hay. Tirrell and T. Lothrop threshing. Trask burning Bushes on Penns Hill.
Reading Tullys Offices. It is a Treatise on moral obligation.

Our Word Obligation answers nearer and better than Duty, to Ciceros Word, officium.
Our Men have brought up 3 loads of Salt Hay and left a 4th. stacked upon the Ground. The Barley not all threshed. Prince return'd from Boston.
Read much in Tullys Offices.
The Weather hot and dry.
One great Advantage of the Christian Religion is that it brings the great Principle of the Law of Nature and Nations, Love your Neighbour as yourself, and do to others as you would that others should do to you, to the Knowledge, Belief and Veneration of the whole People. Children, Servants, Women and Men are all Professors in the science of public as well as private Morality. No other Institution for Education, no kind of political Discipline, could diffuse this kind of necessary Information, so universally among all Ranks and Descriptions of Citizens. The Duties and Rights of The Man and the Citizen are thus taught, from early Infancy to every Creature. The Sanctions of a future Life are thus added to the Observance of civil and political as well as domestic and private Duties. Prudence, Justice, Temperance and Fortitude, are thus taught to be the means and Conditions of future as well as present Happiness.
My Team met the Abington Team at the Bars, and plough'd the Baulk between Burrells Corn and the great Wall, with the great Plough.


Ploughed on the North Side of the Wall from the Road to the rocky Vally with the small breaking up plough. Trask mowing Bushes and burning. At Night both Teams came home with both Ploughs.
Mrs. Adams went with Mrs. Otis to Situate and Plymouth.
Mr. Reed and Mr. Gurney with Billings ploughing below the lower Garden with 9 Cattle, and the small breaking up plough. It took a long time to fix the Plough with a Wheel &c. In the Afternoon ploughed upon Stony field Hill.
Sullivan with one Yoke of oxen, the Steers and Mare gone to cart Salt Hay for my Tenants French and Vinton.
Tirrell and Thomas still threshing. James and Prince, idle as usual.
Seven Yoke of Oxen and a Horse, Mr. Reed, Mr. Gurney, Mr. Billings, Mr. Brisler, Sullivan and Thomas Lothrop and black James, Seven hands ploughing with the great Plough in the Meadow below the lower Garden. Prince gone to Mill. The Weather dry, fair and cool. The Wind Easterly.
Ten Yoke of Oxen and ten Men ploughing in the Meadow below my House.


Ten Yoke of Oxen and twelve hands ploughing in the meadow. It is astonishing that such a Meadow should have lain so long in such a State. Brakes, Hassock Grass, Cramberry Vines, Poke or Skunk Cabbage, Button Bushes, alder Bushes, old Stumps and Roots, Rocks, Turtles, Eels, Frogs, were the Chief Things to be found in it. But I presume it may be made to produce Indian and English Grain, and English Grass, especially Herdsgrass in Abundance. At least the Beauty of the Meadow and the Sweetness of it and the Air over it will be improved. Brackets, Vintons and My Brothers oxen added to mine and those from Abington.
Bracket and Vinton left me. We procured Captn. Baxters Oxen and William Field junr. and went on with Eight Yoke including my red Steers, and ploughed as well as ever.
Paid Reed 11. 2s. in full for the Weeks Work of two Men, three Yoke of Oxen and a Horse.
The Men I allowed 6s. a day, tho I found them, being one Shilling more than the Agreement. The Oxen I allowed 7s. 6d. a Day, as they found them, which was according to Agreement. The Horse

The horse I allowed four shillings a Day for the Days he worked, or rather danced, which were three, and I allowed them one shilling a Day for his Keeping, when he was idle. Making in the whole 11 2s: 0d.
The [They] left a miserable Dogs Ear in the Meadow unploughed, which mortifies me. In other Respects I am satisfied. I allowed them however a very extravagant sum for keeping their Cattle, and a shilling a Man a Day more than they asked for their Labour.
Mrs. Adams returned with Mr. and Mrs. Otis and Miss Harriot about 9 O Clock at night.
The hottest day. Unwell.
Mr. Otis and Family went to Boston. Mr. C. Storer and Mr. Storrow breakfasted.
Billings and Sullivan began the Wall against the Road opposite the Corner of the Garden.
Very hot but the Wind springs up. Unwell.
All hands and Tirrell, upon the Wall -- carting Stones and Earth &c.
Went down to Mr. Quincys and up to our Tenants with Mrs. Adams. Unwell.Brisler and the two black Boys picking Apples.
Billings, Bass and the Lothrops upon the Wall. The blacks going to pick Apples. I took Rhubarb and Salt of Wormwood.


Bathing my Feet and drinking balm Tea, last night composed me somewhat, and I hope the Rhubarb and Salt of Wormwood I took this Morning will carry off my Complaints: but the Pain in my head and the burnings in my hands and feet were so like the Commencement of my Fevers of 1781 at Amsterdam and of 1783 at Paris and Auteuil, that I began to be allarmed.
Mr. and Mrs. Norton dined with Us.
Old Mr. Thomas Adams of Medfield, the Father of Hannah Adams, the Author of The View of Religions, came in to return a Volume he borrowed last Spring of Bryants Analysis of the ancient Mythology, and to borrow the other two Volumes which I lent him.
Brisler and the black Boys picking Apples.
Billings, Bass and the two Lothrops all this Week upon the Wall over the Way. They make about a Rod and a half a day. Captn. Beale began Yesterday to clear his Brook. So much for the Exemplary Influence of ploughing my Meadow.
The Benediction of Ulysses to The Pheacians, B. 13. 1. 60. "Sure fix'd on Virtue may your nation stand and public Evil never touch the Land" comprehends the Essence and Summary of Politicks.

A Nation can stand on no other Basis, and standing on this it is founded on a Rock. Standing on any other Ground it will be washed away by the Rains or blown down by the Winds.
This Day has been intolerably hot. But about 9 O Clock in the Evening it began to rain with Thunder and Lightening and continued to rain very steadily for an hour or two.
My Men complained of the heat more than at any time, they accomplished never the less about a rod and an half of the Wall.
Cloudy. Wind. N.E. but not rainy. The shower last night has refreshed Us. The Corn, the Gardens, the Pastures, The After feed, the Fruit trees all feel it.
Sullivan gone for a Load of Seaweed. The other Men upon the Wall. In digging a Trench for the Wall We find Stones enough, in Addition to the old Wall to compleat the New one. Four hands with a Yoke of Oxen have done Six Rods in four days Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday.
Brisler went Yesterday a plovering with a Party who killed about an hundred.


"Inflexible to preserve, virtuous to pursue, and intelligent to discern the true Interests of his Country." Flattering expressions of a Toast, the more remarkable as they originated in N. York. -- God grant they may never be belied, never disproved.
Mr. Sedgwick and Mr. Barrell came up to see me, and gives a sanguine Account of the future Elections of Senators and Representatives.
Sullivan brought up a Load of Seaweed for the Swine. Trask at Work the 3d day mowing Bushes in the old Plain.
Sullivan carting Seaweed, spread one Load among the red Loam in the Cavity in the Yard. Trask mowing Bushes in the meadow below the Garden. James cutting the Trees. Billings, Bass and Thomas, about the Wall. Brisler absent on Account of his sick Child.
The Wall, the Alterations of the Road, and the Carting of the Earth, Soil, Loam, Gravel and Stones, out of the Way, whether We spread them on the Meadow, lay them in heaps for Compost in the Yard, or deposit them in Parts of the Road where they may be wanted, will in the most frugal Course We can take consume much labour at a great Expence.
Hot. Went not out. Mr. Strong preached. Reading Bryants Analysis of ancient Mythology.


Warm. Billings, Bass and two Sullivans with James on the Wall. Carted 9 or 10 Load of excellent Soil into an heap, below the lower Garden Wall, and put it to two Loads of Seaweed and some Lime, for manure for the Corn in the Meadow next Year. Carted besides, 3 Loads into the Hollow in the Cowyard. An extream hot day. Reading Bryant. Wrote to Phila. to Wolcot and Pickering.
Prospect of another hot day. Pursuing the Wall. Tirrell worked with our Men.Trask cutting Bushes on the ploughed Meadow at the other Place. Wind shifted to the North and then to the N.E. and the Air became very cold. Rode up to see Trask. Carted Mould into the Yard all Day.
Wind north and Air cold. Working on the high Ways. Carried a great Part of my gravel and spread it on the Road to the Meeting House.
The Summer is ended and the first day of Autumn commenced. The Morning is cold tho the Wind is West. To Work again on the high Ways. Billings out upon his Wall a little after Sunrise. Captn. Hall Surveyor of High Ways finished the Road between my Garden and new Wall.


To work again on the high Ways. They have taxed me this Year between forty nine and fifty days Works on the Roads besides the other Farm in Quincy and the farm in Braintree. This is unjust, more than my Proportion, more than Mr. Black or Mr. Beale.
Stumbled over a Wheelbarrow in the night dark and hurt my Shin.
Pursuing the Wall. Tirrell is here and We expect French with his Team. Some soft warm Showers in the night and this morning. French came not, because it rained.
Anniversary of Peace, which has lasted 13 Years.
Fair. No Clergyman to day.
The Anniversary of The Congress in 1774.
Sullivan brought a good Load of green Seaweed, with six Cattle, which We spread and limed upon the heap of Compost in the Meadow. Carted Earth from the Wall to the same heap. Tirrell here. Stetson opening the Brook three feet wider, Two feet on one Side and three feet on the other, at 9d. Pr. rod. Billings has never laid up more than a Rod and a half a day, of the Wall, till Yesterday when he thinks he laid up 28 feet.
Walked up to Trask mowing Bushes.
Belcher, Bass and Sullivan gone to mow the Marsh and get out the Thatch at Penny ferry.


Billings laying Wall. Thomas, carting Earth. Stetson, widening the Brook to seven feet at 9d. Pr. Rod and a dinner. Brisler and James preparing, Yesterday and to day, the Cyder Mill, Press, and Casks.
Yesterday Jackson Field came to offer me Mount Arrarat at Three hundred Dollars. I could not agree. He fell to 275. I could not agree. He fell to 250 reserving the Right to work in Stone with one hand, for Life. I agreed at length to this extravagant Price and have drawn the Deed this Morning.
This Afternoon He came and took the Deed to execute and acknowledge.
Sullivan gone for Seaweed. Bass and Thomas carting Manure from the Hill of Compost in the Yard. Billings and Prince laying Wall. Brisler and James picking Apples and making Cyder. Stetson widening the Brook.
I think to christen my Place by the Name of Peace field, in commemoration of the Peace which I assisted in making in 1783, of the thirteen Years Peace and Neutrality which I have contributed to preserve, and of the

constant Peace and Tranquility which I have enjoyed in this Residence.
Carted 6 Loads of slimy Mud from the Brook to the heap of Compost.
Jackson Field brought me his Deed of Mount Arrarat executed by himself and his Wife and acknowledged before Major Miller. I received it, and gave him my Note for 250 dollars. I then gave him my Consent, without his asking it, to pasture his Cow as usual the Remainder of this Season, for which he expressed Gratitude, and engaged to keep off Geese, Sheep, Hogs and Cattle. Received Letters from my Son at the Hague as late as 24 June.
Appearances of Rain.
Walked, with my Brother to Mount Arrarat, and find upon Inquiry that Jo. Arnold's Fence against the New Lane begins at the Road by the Nine mile Stone. My half is towards Neddy Curtis's Land lately Wm. Fields. The Western Half of the Fence against Josiah Bass, or in other Words that Part nearest to Neddy Curtis's is mine. Against Dr. Greenleaf my half is nearest to Josiah Bass's Land.


[Beginning of Fragment I]

Mowed, over vs. Yard and Garden
One Load, from the road to the ditch and from the cart path to the pasture Lane. 1
Four Loads, over the Way and between the ditch and orchard. 4
One Load from Chris Webbs House Lott. 1
One from the 10 Acre Lot on the hill. 1
Two in Cranchs Barn and two from the 10 Acre Lott. 4
Two load. One from Mr. Cranchs and 1 from 10 Acre Lot. 2
4 Load from about the Hancock Cellar. 4
6 Load five from about Hancocks Cellar and one from the Walnut Lot. 6
6 Load. 3 from Walnut Lot and three from about Hancocks Cellar and one jag.
Six Loads from Chris. Webbs farm. 6
Seven Loads 3 from the orchard and 4 into Mr. Cranches Barn of Clover -- Jaggs all. 7
[Total ] 43



Total from the other side. 43
5 Load from the Wire Grass Hill. 5
Three Loads from the ten Acre hill. 3
Three Loads from the orchard and beyond it. 3
Two Loads from the Ditch. 2
Three Loads in Mr. Cranchs Barn. 3
Three, fresh and all into Mr. C. Barn. 3
One Load from the Beech Meadow part black grass. 1
[Total ] 63
One Load Salt [hay] from the Coves. 1
5 loads of Salt Hay from the Coves. 5
3 loads, one from the Coves and two from Mount Wollaston at the Salt pond. 3
3 Loads from the Meadows on this and the other side the Causey. 3
2 Loads from the Causey at Mount Wollaston. 2
Four loads from the beach. 4
Two loads from the Beach Salt Hay. 2
[Total ] 20



The last Week in August We ploughed a ditch and brought the Earth into the Yard and 32 loads of Mud from the Cove.


Cite web page as: John Adams diary 46, 6 August 1787 - 10 September 1796, 2 July - 21 August 1804 [electronic edition]. Adams Family Papers: An Electronic Archive. Massachusetts Historical Society. http://www.masshist.org/digitaladams/
Original manuscript: Adams, John. John Adams diary 46, 6 August 1787 - 10 September 1796, 2 July - 21 August 1804. Grouping of 9 fragments of loose and/or folded sheets (65 pages and additional blank pages). Original manuscript from the Adams Family Papers, Massachusetts Historical Society.
Source of transcription: Butterfield, L.H., ed. Diary and Autobiography of John Adams. Vol. 3. Cambridge, Mass. : Harvard University Press, 1961.

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